Last edited by Fenrikasa
Thursday, July 23, 2020 | History

3 edition of Frazil ice formation found in the catalog.

Frazil ice formation

R. Ettema

Frazil ice formation

by R. Ettema

  • 207 Want to read
  • 35 Currently reading

Published by US Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory in Hanover, N.H .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Ice crystals,
  • Ice on rivers, lakes, etc

  • Edition Notes

    StatementR. Ettema, M.F. Karim and J.F. Kennedy.
    SeriesCRREL report -- 84-18.
    ContributionsKarim, M. Fazle., Kennedy, J. F. 1933-, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
    The Physical Object
    Paginationvi, 44 p. :
    Number of Pages44
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL17624342M
    OCLC/WorldCa11423888

    The deposition of the majority of the suspended frazil ice is found to occur in spatially discrete bursts, where peak rates of accumulation at the ice shelf base exceed 1 m yr −1 of solid ice. There is a good correlation between the location of the zones of crystal deposition and the position of the upstream limits of the marine ice layers. The image processing system is described, and results from a series of experiments are presented. The effects of air temperature, water velocity, and bottom roughness on the formation of frazil ice are discussed. A lognormal distribution appears to provide a reasonable fit to the observed frazil .

    While we have investigated frazil ice formation processes, we have developed ice control methods to prevent frazil slush from entering the water intakes. Based on field observations in the Penke-niupu River, we verified the usefulness of a freestanding “ice fence”. Since first installed in , the ice fence has reduced frequent. ‘Grease ice is a later stage of freezing than frazil ice when the crystals have coagulated to form a soupy layer on the surface.’ ‘Contaminant fluxes associated with the process of frazil ice formation in the Kara sea are much smaller than worst-case estimates.’ ‘The second has the frazil ice model embedded in a commonly used sub-ice.

    texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) with special reference to anchor-ice and frazil Item Preview remove-circle Ice formation: with special reference to anchor-ice and frazil by Barnes, Howard T. (Howard Turner), b.   Two main types of ice formation were observed on the screen: type I where frazil ice particles stick to the screen wires but with openings remaining underneath the ice, and type II where solid ice forms between the wires at very low temperatures.


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Frazil ice formation by R. Ettema Download PDF EPUB FB2

Frazil ice is a collection of loose, randomly oriented, plate or discoid ice crystals formed in supercooled turbulent water. Its formation is common during the winter in rivers and lakes located in northern latitudes, and usually forms in open-water reaches of rivers where and when the heat exchange between the air and the water is such that the water temperature can drop below its freezing.

Frazil ice formation. Hanover, N.H.: US Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National Frazil ice formation book publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: R Ettema; M Fazle Karim; J F Kennedy; Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.

Other articles where Frazil ice is discussed: ice in lakes and rivers: Ice particles: in the flow are termed frazil ice. Frazil is almost always the first ice formation in rivers. The particles are typically about 1 millimetre ( inch) or smaller in size and usually in the shape of thin disks.

Frazil appears in several types of initial ice formation: thin, sheetlike formations. Frazil ice formation book The frazil can accumulate to thicknesses of 4 m or more beneath an ice canopy adjacent to the area of frazil ice formation and, as noted above, can adhere to supercooled substrate, forming pillow-like accumulations of anchor ice adhering to frozen sediment (Tsang, ; Reimnitz et al., ; Kempema et al., ).

The supercooled water allows the formation of small ice crystals (frazil ice), and the crystals get taken to the bottom of the water body. Frazil ice is the first stage in the formation of sea ice. Through a crystallization process, the crystals quickly increase in number, and because of its supercooled surrounding, the crystals continue to grow.

Grease ice is a very thin, soupy layer of frazil crystals clumped together, which makes the ocean surface resemble an oil ice is the second stage in the formation of solid sea ice after ice floes and then frazil ice.

New sea ice formation takes place throughout the winter in the first ice that forms in a polynya are loose ice crystals called frazil ice. and are operated by Freezing Point LLC located at S Pony Express Rd, Draper, UT Accessing Our Site.

Access to our site is permitted on a temporary basis, and we reserve the right to withdraw or amend the service we provide on our site without notice. book about "the Drizels and Krazils who sat on their droofuses drinking up Frazils." Neither is true.

Frazil is a real word for the ice crystals that form on the surface of a fast-flowing river, the flow prevents the river from freezing solid so the river becomes Frazil.

A model of the dynamics and thermodynamics of a plume of meltwater at the base of an ice shelf is presented. Such ice shelf water plumes may become supercooled and deposit marine.

It appears that the use o^f meteorological data tO' forecast frazil ice formation is questionable. At O'ne power plant installation, intake water temperature data is used to detect conditions that are conducive to the formation o^f frazil ice and thereby indicate to the. Book May with Reads PHOENICS is applied to the problem of formation of frazil ice in a river.

The accumulation of frazil ice into larger, more buoyant aggregates (grease ice. Frazil ice formation is a transient phenomenon, the continuance of which in a body of water destroys the conditions necessary for its occurrence.

Formation of Frazil Ice A good description of frazil ice production by B. Michel [11] follows. Michel's results are from labora­. Ice Formation: With Special Reference to Anchor-ice and Frazil Paperback – August 1, by Howard T. (Howard Turner) Barnes (Creator) See Format: Paperback.

We study the first steps of ice formation in fresh water turbulent convection (frazil ice regime). We explore the sensitivity of the ice formation process to the set of non-dimensional parameters governing the system. We model the mixture of ice crystals and water as a two-phase medium composed of water and ice particles of fixed diameter.

A major portion of floating Antarctic ice shelves is marine ice. Marine ice differs from meteoric ice in conductivity, stable isotopes, and grain size, and is mostly formed by mm sized frazil ice crystals that precipitate upwards from the ocean below.

In this study a size spectrum for growth and precipitation of frazil ice crystals has been added to a plume model describing the flow of buoyant. Frazil ice has also occurred at Evanston, Ill., in recent years, but according to Dave Stoneback, utilities director, a proprietary heating system has been effective in preventing buildup.

“We’ve used the heating system the last three winters on our inch intake,” he says, reporting good results. The system uses electricity to heat. Sketch showing the two-step thought process involved with quantifying the formation of frazil ice Ih by the adiabatic uplift of a seawater parcel that may contain preexisting frazil ice.

The step from stage 1 to 2 is undertaken without any exchange of heat or mass between the seawater and ice Ih phases. While the in situ temperatures of the. We present a model for the growth of frazil ice crystals and their accumulation as marine ice at the base of Antarctic ice shelves.

The model describes the flow of buoyant water upward along the ice shelf base and includes the differential growth of a range of crystal sizes. Frazil ice formation starts when the rising plume becomes supercooled. Initially, the majority of crystals have a radius.

Each winter, municipal water supply and thermal power plants drawing water from the Great Lakes face the problem of their water intakes becoming blocked by frazil ice formed in the lakes. A number of photographs are presented which illustrate selected aspects of frazil ice formation in turbulent streams in interior Alaska.

These include the various forms of frazil ice found in turbulent streams and the processes involved in the development of an ice cover on the streams. Ice Formation, With Special Reference to Anchor-ice and Frazil [Barnes, Howard Turner] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Ice Formation, With Special Reference to Anchor-ice and Frazil.Observational evidence of supercooling and frazil ice formation throughout the water column in a coastal polynya in the Sea of Okhotsk; Research results Book chapter: Connecting the Arctic while installing submarine data cables between East Asia, North America and Europe.Frazil Ice Formation: A Review.

The problems associated with frazil ice formation are examined, the current state-of-the-art is reviewed, and recommendations for future research are made. No priorities are assigned to these recommendations.

Future research should focus on obtaining heat transfer data, temperature measurements, flow measurements, physical measurements on frazil ice crystals.